Now that you have had some time to adjust to your recent diagnosis and learn about multiple sclerosis (MS), you may have concerns about the potential impact of MS on your working life. The information below (also available in a downloadable PDF) helps answer some commonly-asked questions about employment and MS. However, it is not a substitute for professional medical or legal advice.
MS Australia ACT/NSW/VIC would like to acknowledge the contribution of John Berrill, Maurice Blackburn Pty Ltd, for his assistance in reviewing and developing the content.
Deciding whether to disclose a diagnosis of MS is not simple. In general, the decision should be based on your own needs and priorities, whilst also taking into account the needs and priorities of those who you choose to tell. There is no single answer or strategy that is right for everyone. It may help to take some time to consider the possible benefits and consequences of making your diagnosis public.
On the positive side, disclosing may:
The potentially negative consequences of disclosure are that:
If you are not experiencing any work-related difficulties and have no visible symptoms you may wish to consider delaying disclosure in the workplace.
Before you disclose, consider the possible benefits and consequences of making your diagnosis public.
You cannot take it back once you have told an employer or work colleague.
If you are a member of a union, get their help.
Before you disclose, you may find it helpful to talk through your decision with a health professional at MS Australia ACT/NSW/VIC. They can guide you through your options and to appropriate sources of information and legal support.
If you do decide to disclose to your employer, make an appointment at a mutually convenient time. Try to avoid peak work times when your employer may be preoccupied with other pressing matters.
No, not unless your symptoms are an occupational health and safety risk to you or others. For example if you have symptoms of optic neuritis and you are a truck driver, you will probably have to tell your employer about your symptoms.
There are a few occupations where there is a statutory duty to tell your employer about any pre-existing health problems. Otherwise, it is up to you whether you choose to tell an employer about your symptoms or that you have MS.
Get professional advice about whether you must or should tell your employer that you have MS.
If your symptoms of MS are visible or impact on your work, you may wish to disclose at the interview and provide information about MS, how it affects you and your work, and what workplace adjustments you need to meet the job requirements. Some employers will require you to disclose anything which impacts on your ability to meet the job requirements. Failing to disclose relevant information may have consequences, such as termination of employment but not always.
Ultimately, the aim of an interview is to match an individual's abilities with the inherent job requirements and to find the best applicant for the job. In some circumstances, having MS may be irrelevant and you may decide to defer disclosure until after the initial interview, once the employer is already interested in hiring you on the merits of your qualifications and experience.
Generally speaking, yes, if the assessment is genuinely and reasonably designed to assess your physical and/or mental ability to perform the requirements of the position. Of course, you can't be forced to go to a pre-employment medical assessment but it will probably affect your chances of getting the job if you don't.
You have the same rights and responsibilities as any person who is unwell at work. This includes the right not to be discriminated against or dismissed because you are unwell, as well as the responsibility not to endanger your own safety or the safety of others. Becoming unwell at work may create a reason (or obligation) to disclose, if only to explain to your employer what is happening.
If you tell your employer that you have MS, having lied about it before you started work, your employer may have the right to terminate your employment but not always (e.g. if you have a reasonable explanation as to why you didn't tell them, if it was a long time ago or if it was not relevant to being able to do the job).
Yes, the driver licensing authority in your state or territory requires that you notify them about any medical or neurological conditions which might affect your driving ability. This is entirely separate from any obligation you might have to your employer.
Under the Fair Work Act employers must take reasonable steps to accommodate the working needs of employees with MS, unless this causes unjustifiable hardship to the business.
Adjustments may include re-negotiating an employee's hours, relocating or modifying an employee's workstation, allowing the employee to take time off work for medical appointments and treatment or,
in some circumstances, changing an employee's job duties.
Get specialist advice about your situation.
This depends on a number of factors such as the effect of the symptoms you are experiencing, the nature of your work, the impact of the adjustments on others and the associated costs. Some adjustments might be considered an unjustifiable hardship for a small business but could be accommodated in a larger business.
The answers to these questions depend on the nature of your work and your symptoms, as well as the nature and circumstances of the business. An employer is not obliged to accommodate you if, by doing so, it would cause them unjustifiable hardship. If the inherent (core) requirements of the job genuinely include working full-time hours, then the employer can insist you work full-time. If you cannot comply, the employer may terminate your employment.
However, determining the inherent (core) job requirements as opposed to the way the job has always been done is not always straightforward. Some employers may be willing to try a new approach, particularly if it means keeping a valued employee.
Bear in mind, a 'negotiation' is most likely to be successful if both you and your employer are able to approach it with goodwill, openness and flexibility.
This will depend on your contract of employment and any Enterprise Bargaining Agreement (EBA) or award. Generally, unless the employer has a right to do this under your contract, EBA or award, they can't reduce your hours without your permission.
However, in circumstances where the symptoms of MS are interfering with your ability to continue working full-time, your employer might be able to insist that you change your hours if you want to keep working there.
If the redundancy is genuine and you have been fairly selected for retrenchment, then your employer may have to offer you an alternative position or terminate your employment. If no suitable position can be found and your employment is terminated for redundancy, you may be entitled to a redundancy or severance payment. This will depend on the terms of your employment.
If your employer selected you for redundancy unfairly or singled you out because you have MS, you may have a right to claim unfair dismissal or unlawful discrimination. Speak to a lawyer.
The obligation of landlords and tenants can overlap as a result of both the legislation and the terms of the lease. Both landlords and tenants (if they control the premises) have an obligation under discrimination law not to discriminate against people with disabilities. Sometimes, but not always, this will include an obligation to make modifications to a building.
No, this would be unlawful discrimination as well as unlawful termination.
An employer can terminate your employment if you:
However, under the Fair Work Act, your employer must take reasonable steps to try to accommodate
you in the work place.
There are two types of unlawful discrimination:
It is not unlawful for an employer to discriminate against you if you can no longer perform the inherent (core) requirements of your job or can only do so if the employer needs to make adjustments to accommodate you in a way which would impose unjustifiable hardship.
Factors that may be relevant in considering whether there is an unjustifiable hardship are unreasonable financial costs to the employer, technical difficulties with implementing the special services or facilities, or if jobs are not reasonably available.
Make time to talk to your employer. Speak to a health professional at MS Australia ACT/NSW/VIC if you feel you need help. If you are a member of a union, seek their assistance. If the issue cannot be resolved to your satisfaction you can make a complaint to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission or the appropriate organisation for managing complaints in your state or territory.
It is best to seek professional advice before lodging a formal complaint.
This will depend on the terms of your employment contract and any Enterprise Bargaining Agreement (EBA) or award which applies to your employment. You might have an entitlement to paid or unpaid leave, or both.
It would be unlawful for your employer to terminate your employment for a temporary absence from work due to illness; however, what is considered 'temporary' may depend on the circumstances.
Generally, an employer cannot refuse to allow an employee back to work if the employee has been cleared by a doctor as being able to perform all his or her pre-injury or illness duties. However, there may be circumstances in which this refusal is justified, such as if a doctor clears the employee for particular restricted duties and those duties are not available or suitable, or if the position is no longer available.
If your employer refuses you permission to return on the basis suggested by your doctor, try to explore the employer's reasons. For example, the employer may be genuinely concerned about your fitness to return to work. In some instances a doctor's certificate may not adequately address the specific job requirements or the doctor may not have fully understood the nature of duties available at your place of work.
The employer may have not only the right but the responsibility to change your role if there are safety issues. You also have a responsibility to protect your safety and the safety of others, which may include changing your role or duties. However, employers should not use this type of argument as a pretext to discriminate against you. You may be able to show that there are no safety issues and resist the change.
It will depend on your employment contract, the employer's policies, any legislation which applies to your employment, and the reason for the assessment. For example, a job-related health assessment may be justified and lawful, particularly (but not only) if it is also a requirement for employees in similar jobs.
It may also be lawful for your employer to ask you to see a doctor if your work is being affected by your MS, but you have refused to explain what is happening or are returning to work after an illness-related absence. However, unless there is a statutory obligation on you to go to a doctor, your employer can't force you to see their doctor.
Yes, it can be shown that your employment was a significant contributing factor to your MS-related stress.
It is basically a medico-legal question, so speak to your doctor and a lawyer.
If your employment was the significant contributing factor to the accident occurring then you will be paid workers compensation in respect of the injury sustained and the incapacity arising from that injury. However, you will not be paid any workers compensation in respect of MS or the incapacity or medical expenses that relate to the condition, if it wasn't work related.
No, irrespective of whether or not you were told to go home, if you had an accident at work you are covered for workers compensation, even it was related to your MS symptoms.
If you have an accident at work and suffer injuries, you are eligible for workers compensation benefits. However, if you fail to disclose a pre-existing condition, you may be ineligible to receive workers compensation benefits. It depends on the state or territory in which you work.
Not without your consent. An insurer or superannuation trustee can only disclose sensitive personal information about you (including information about your MS) to your employer, without your consent, if the disclosure is directly related to the primary purpose of the collection of that information. If the disclosure of MS to your employer is not for such a purpose, then the insurer and/or the superannuation trustee must generally obtain your consent before doing so.
The insurer may request you undergo a medical examination as part of your application for obtaining insurance cover or as part of making a claim through your superannuation fund. The reason is most likely to assist the insurer to determine if you are eligible for insurance cover or to assess a disability insurance claim made by you.
Yes, if you are covered for it, for example, through your employer or superannuation fund. Some policies exclude pre-existing conditions but not many. Get legal advice.
Most employment super funds include lump sums for total and permanent disability (TPD).
Some workers are also covered for insurance lump sums paid for by their employer.
To be eligible for the TPD lump sum you will usually have to be permanently unfit to do your normal job or any other suitable work (given your education, training or experience) because of your MS symptoms and any other health problems.
You don't have to be unfit for any work or part-time work, only suitable work that you have the skills to do.
If you have reached the point of having to stop work because of your MS symptoms, you may be a candidate. Get legal advice.
Perhaps, depending on whether you could have continued working, your work capacity and your ability
to meet Centrelink eligibility criteria, such as assets and income tests. You should speak to Centrelink
or seek professional financial advice regarding this.
It depends on the terms of the particular superannuation scheme and factors including your age
and your level of disability. You will need specialist advice and the first step will be to contact your superannuation fund.
Your superannuation fund's rules may allow you to access your superannuation early. You might also be eligible for disability insurance benefits from your super fund, either as a lump sum or monthly payments.
It is really important to get legal advice about this before claiming your superannuation early.
Some law firms specialise in employment law and may give you free legal advice. Some community legal centres specialise in disability issues. There are also paid legal services you can access. Contact the law society or law institute in your state or territory for more information.
Some lawyers may charge on a 'no win, no fee' basis; however, they cannot charge a percentage of the amount won. Make sure you find out what they will charge before you agree.
Yes, anyone can apply for legal aid but not everyone will qualify and not for every type of claim the public money available is very limited. In some situations, if you win you will have to reimburse the legal aid provider for their costs meaning that some of the damages awarded to you will be paid to the provider. If you lose, you may have to pay court expenses.